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Sunday, 11 October 2020

October 11, 2020

The mystery of the name

The mystery of the name

Does a name have characteristics that inevitably become inherent in the one who wears it? Can a name influence the life and fate of its bearer or does it all depend on upbringing? The answers to this question can be very different, but one thing is certain: each of us has met people in our lives, about whom they said: "How her name does not suit her! Well, what is Olya? She is Zhenya!" This is natural, since each name necessarily has some signs that are known and meaningful to everyone. As already mentioned, the baby identifies himself with his name. Realizing that he is Valera, Kolya or Tolya, he also adopts the characteristics that are associated with this name.


National characteristic
The name is directly related to nationality. Receiving the name of his people, the child involuntarily begins to classify himself as part of his history and character. On the other hand, there are also international names that give the baby great freedom in national self-determination. They have some unifying meaning, that is, it is easier for a person with such a name to feel like a "citizen of the world."

Historical roots
Each name has its own social image and character. Learning the history of mankind and his country, reading novels and textbooks, the child involuntarily pays attention to the namesake. What were they like? What have you done? How are they remembered by descendants? He meets in them those features that are inherent or desirable to him, and thus, as it were, receives support from the past: "Yes, you can be like that!" (For example, a bold, a great wise, resourceful, valid.)

Meaning
Each name means something. For convenience, mankind has abandoned the uniqueness of the first names "Sharp Eye", "Morning Dawn"). However, all our names came from words that have their own meaning. Some of them have lost their direct connection with the original meaning. For example, without reading in the reference book that Alexei is a "defender" and Peter is a "stone", you will hardly guess about it. Some names, on the contrary, mean exactly what it means - Vera, Victoria, Light.
October 11, 2020

Why the name matters so much

Why the name matters so much



In 1948, two Harvard University professors published a study of 3,300 men who had recently graduated from university. Scientists have tried to find out if a person's name affects his academic performance. According to the results of this study, young people with unusual names were excluded from the university or showed symptoms of neurotic disorders more often than those whose names were more traditional. The Maiks tended to do well, while the Berriens were in constant trouble. Scientists have concluded that rare names have a negative psychological impact on their speakers.

After the publication of the results of this study in 1948, many scientists continued to study the effect of the name on a person, and after several decades, the conclusions of its authors were repeatedly confirmed. The authors of some new studies argue that the name can affect the choice of profession, place of residence, spouse, on grades at school, on whether we can get to a particular school or take a particular position, as well as the quality of our work in team. Our name even influences whether we donate money to help victims of any disaster: according to the results of one study, if a person's name begins with the same letter as the name of a hurricane, he is much more likely to donate money to elimination of its consequences.

However, this theory on closer examination turns out to be untenable. Psychologist Uri Simonsohn of the University of Pennsylvania questioned the results of many studies designed to demonstrate the effect of hidden selfishness, saying that the scientists' conclusions are statistically flawed due to flawed methodology. “It's like a magician,” he explained to me. “He's showing you a trick, and you know it's just an illusion, but how did he do it? The answer lies in the methodology. " In his opinion, the shortcomings of these studies lie in ignoring basic information - that is, the frequency with which a particular phenomenon, such as a name, occurs within a particular society. You may find it very tempting that a person named Dan is highly likely to choose the profession of a doctor, but we have to ask ourselves if there are so many doctors among the Dan, because Dan is a very common name, whose carriers are well represented in many professions. If this is the case, then we can no longer refer to the effect of latent egoism.

Some researchers have shown somewhat greater restraint in their assessments of the connection between a person's name and his destiny. In 1984, psychologist Debra Crisp and her colleagues discovered that while more traditional names are more likely to be sympathetic, they have no effect on a person's academic achievement. In 2012, psychologists Hui Bai and Kathleen Briggs concluded that “the first letter of a name can only have an unconscious effect, if any, at best.” Although a person's name can influence their thinking on an unconscious level, its impact on decision-making is very limited. The results of subsequent studies also questioned the relationship between name and longevity, success, choice of profession, place of residence and spouse,

Meanwhile, no one claims that the name has no effect on a person: perhaps its effect just needs to be correctly interpreted. In 2004, economists Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan compiled 5,000 resumes in response to job ads posted in newspapers in Chicago and Boston. Using birth certificates issued from 1974 to 1979, Bertrand and Mullainathan worked out which names are most common in one race and least common in another, thus creating a list of "white names" (such as Emily Walsh and Greg Baker) and "black names" (such as Lakisha Washington and Jamal Jones). They also created two types of candidates: highly qualified candidates with extensive work experience and an impressive resume. and low-skilled candidates with obvious educational and track record gaps. Economists sent two resumes from each group to all employers - one was from a person with a “black name”, the other was from a person with a “white” (that is, in the end, four resumes were submitted to each employer). The researchers found that candidates with "white names" received twice as many responses as candidates with "black names", and that the advantage of a "white name" resume was equivalent to about eight years of work experience. On average, employers responded to one in ten “white” resume compared to one in fifteen “black” resume. Thus, our names contain information about ourselves and our origins. Economists sent two resumes from each group to all employers - one was from a person with a “black name”, the other was from a person with a “white” (that is, in the end, four resumes were submitted to each employer). The researchers found that candidates with "white names" received twice as many responses as candidates with "black names", and that the advantage of a "white name" resume was equivalent to about eight years of work experience. On average, employers responded to one in ten “white” resume compared to one in fifteen “black” resume. Thus, our names contain information about ourselves and our origins. Economists sent two resumes from each group to all employers - one was from a person with a “black name”, the other was from a person with a “white” (that is, in the end, four resumes were submitted to each employer). The researchers found that candidates with "white names" received twice as many responses as candidates with "black names", and that the advantage of a "white name" resume was equivalent to about eight years of work experience. On average, employers responded to one in ten “white” resume compared to one in fifteen “black” resume. Thus, our names contain information about ourselves and our origins. The researchers found that candidates with "white names" received twice as many responses as candidates with "black names", and that the advantage of a "white name" resume was equivalent to about eight years of work experience. On average, employers responded to one in ten “white” resume compared to one in fifteen “black” resume. Thus, our names contain information about ourselves and our origins. The researchers found that candidates with "white names" received twice as many responses as candidates with "black names", and that the advantage of a "white name" resume was equivalent to about eight years of work experience. On average, employers responded to one in ten “white” resume compared to one in fifteen “black” resume. Thus, our names contain information about ourselves and our origins.

These findings have also been confirmed around the world. The authors of one Swedish study compared immigrants who changed their Slavic, Asian, or African names, such as Kovatsevich or Mohammed, to more neutral or traditionally Swedish names, such as Lindbergh or Johnson. Economists Mahmood Arai and Peter Skogman Thoursie found that such a name change significantly increased the income of immigrants: people with new names earned on average 26% more than those who chose to keep their old names.

The impact of name cues - that is, what a name can tell others about race, religion, social circle, and socioeconomic background - most likely begins long before a person joins a busy population. In a study conducted at a Florida school from 1994 to 2001, economist David Figlio proved that a child's name influences how his teacher will treat him, and that differences in attitudes in turn are reflected in the child's assessments. Children with names associated with low socioeconomic status or dark skin color received far less attention from teachers, further confirming the findings of Bertrand and Mullainathan. Unsurprisingly, these children later performed lower compared to children. whose names were associated with higher status and fair skin. Filho found that, for example, "a boy named Damarcus will, on average, perform worse in math and reading than his brother named Duane, but Damarcus will perform better than his brother named Dakwan." In turn, students with Asian names receive more attention from teachers, so they are much more likely to become participants in programs to help gifted children.

Economists Steven Levitt and Roland Fryer attempted to study the changes in the list of names given to black children in the United States from the 1970s to the early 2000s. They found that overtly "black" names over time developed into an extremely reliable signal of a person's socioeconomic status, and this status in turn influenced the child's quality of life. It turns out that we can establish a connection between a person's name and his fate, and this confirms the conclusions made in 1948 by scientists at Harvard. However, when Levitt and Fryer evaluated the child's parentage, the effect of the name was completely ruled out, since it is not the intrinsic characteristics of the name itself that influence the child's perspective. As Simonson writes, "a name can tell a lot about who you are."

In a 1948 study, most of the unusual names were surnames that became first names - this was fairly common among the upper classes of society at the time. These names also served as a signal, but this time they were a signal of the privilege of their bearers: perhaps the latter believed that they did not need to make an effort in order to succeed in life, or that they had the right to flaunt their neuroses, which under different circumstances they tried to hide. We hear a name, indirectly associate it with certain characteristics, and unconsciously use these associations to make judgments about the competence and suitability of its bearer. Therefore, the main question should be not what hides the name, but what signals this name sends to others.

Wednesday, 30 September 2020

September 30, 2020

Importance of Names

Name is the main word of life

The name of a person is the magic formula of his fate.
It largely determines a person's life ...




People always turned to the saints to help them choose the best fan of names for the newborn. The name appears in a person's life as the bearer of a certain sacred sacred formula representing the person himself. Since ancient times, the name for a person has been of great humanitarian value. Any name is the key to the distinction that a person can receive in life as a result of their activities. The name is the key to the innermost threads of his destiny.

There is an insistent call from many traditions to ensure that each person has more than one name. In various myths, it is reported that knowledge of the name is knowledge of the fate of any creature, up to a being of divine origin.

The name we now bear is three-part: the first name is personal, the second member of the name is the patronymic, a fragment of the generic name, the third member of the name is the surname, the clan name. This clan name usually had totems, or trees, or the names of the area, it was a reflection of where, how, how a person lived, what was associated with his family. The surname binds a person to space and community. Look carefully what kind of program your surnames give, derived from names, from animals, from some properties or qualities, from objects, from a profession. This is also a program that needs to be worked out.

A surname is a name that passes from genus to genus and determines a certain generic affiliation and a super task that a person can realise. The patronymic concerns you personally, your generic program, while the surname is a kind of accumulated karmic program that you may or may not correspond to. The surname also presupposes inclusion in the grandiose social world events and the role that a person plays in these events. The prevalence of surnames has a huge impact on society as a whole. The more common the surname, the less likely it is for that surname to gain charisma.

Any person bears his family name, its trace, seal: men - the name of their father, and women - their mother. But as soon as a woman is married, she must support her husband's surname and program. You can change the surname, the person is not as responsible for the surname as for his own name.

Even if a person changes his patronymic, his trace still remains. Even if the child does not know his true patronymic, it exists in him and acts. Patronymic is the greatest given, the greatest fatality that is in the names. As soon as the father's name in our tradition became a patronymic, the alienation of children from their parents began and the problem of fathers and children appeared. The patronymic also does not depend on the person - through the patronymic, family problems are imposed on life. They ask a person only for his name.

Nicknames, diminutive names, different transcriptions of names - this is disguise and mimicry that help to adapt, give various forms and possibilities of choice. The more various transcriptions and variants follow from the name, the more flexible and multidimensional it becomes. The fewer derivatives you can think of for a name, the more monolithic this name is, the more fatal program it carries, the less multifaceted it is.

It is very important how common your name was at the time of your birth. Common, stereotypical names allow a person to advance only with the support of the team. People with rare names can advance not because of, but in spite of the environment. They just win on the opposition, on the opposition to society. These people should not blend in with the crowd. Conversely, people with common names must walk in the public stream, then they will be able to advance. It happens that a person's name was rare for some time, and then it became common. They start not to notice such a person.

The name, like a sponge, absorbs the reflection of all its outstanding carriers. The name can act as a magnet or catcher of events associated with the bearers of this name. People who have made the right choice in life receive security from this, because the mythological essence of this name will be played in their lives. It is not safe to name a child by the name of a desecrated historical character.

Great importance has always been attached to names and surnames. The formation of character, as well as the fate of a person, determines the essence or meaning of his name and surname, which is confirmed by research by scientists and psychologists. This fact has been known to people since ancient times, when names (for example, biblical names ), nicknames and surnames were given depending on the skills and talents of a person, and only then - boys and girls were called in a certain way in order to influence their character and fate.